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county of edessa

In general, the 90s of the 11th century were the most difficult for the Edess… In the words of Steven Runciman, "the whole Christian population was driven into exile [and t]he great city, which claimed to be the oldest Christian commonwealth in the world, was left empty and desolate, and has never recovered to this day."[28]. For only $5 per month you can become a member and support our mission to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. The Roman emperor Caracalla was assassinated on the road from Edessa to Carrhae (now Harran) by one of his guards in 217. Retrieved from https://www.ancient.eu/edessa/. The County of Edessa was one of the Crusader states in the 12th century, based around Edessa, a city with an ancient history and an early tradition of Christianity. However, there is no doubt that even before AD 190 Christianity had spread vigorously within Edessa and its surroundings and that shortly after the royal house joined the church. The Battle of Edessa took place between the Roman armies under the command of the emperorValerian and the Sasanian forces under emperor Shapur I in 260. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Edessa was subsequently controlled by the Safavid dynasty, and from 1517 to 1918 the Ottoman Empire. The Mandylion icon was actually a scarf or shroud which was considered to have on it the image of Jesus Christ. Zangi encircled the city and had his men undermine one of the defensive walls, which consequently collapsed. According to some Jewish and Muslim traditions, it is Ur of the Chaldees, the birthplace of Abraham. The establishment of the crusader “county” of Edessa is often ― at least implicitly ― treated as a “conquest.” The impression conveyed is that the crusaders (or Franks) invaded, seized control of territory by force, and established a state (in this case styled a “County”) that was controlled by Latin elites. Its seat was the city of Edessa (present-day Şanlıurfa, Turkey).. Edessa was one of the largest of the Crusader states in terms of territory. There are, unfortunately, precious few monumental remains from Edessa’s long and eventful history still visible today. Ancient History Encyclopedia. It was also the most northerly, the weakest, and the least populated; as such, it was subject to frequent attacks from the surrounding Muslim states ruled by the Ortoqids, Danishmends, and Seljuk Turks. [23] In 232 the relics of the apostle Thomas were brought from Mylapore, India, on which occasion his Syriac Acts were written. The Mandylion was taken from Edessa in 944 CE when John Kourkouas took it in exchange for lifting his siege of the city with the Byzantine emperor, Romanos I (r. 920-944 CE), officially promising not to attack it again. [5][6][7][8] It was later renamed Callirrhoe or Antiochia on the Callirhoe (Ancient Greek: Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Καλλιρρόης; Latin: Antiochia ad Callirhoem) in the 2nd century BC (found on Edessan coins struck by Antiochus IV Epiphanes, r. 175–164 BC). "Edessa was the first crusader state, founded in 1098. The territory of the County of Edessa straddled the middle section of the Euphrates River, contained several important castles such as Ranculat and Ravendan, and provided valuable foodstuffs for the Latin East, as the Crusader-created states were known. Belonging to a similar date are the remains of two large fish pools, once used to keep carp for religious dedications to a fertility goddess. This school, largely attended by the Christian youth of Persia, and closely watched by Rabbula, the friend of Cyril of Alexandria, on account of its Nestorian tendencies, reached its highest development under bishop Ibas, famous through the Three-Chapter Controversy, was temporarily closed in 457, and finally in 489, by command of Emperor Zeno and Bishop Cyrus, when the teachers and students of the School of Edessa repaired to Nisibis and became the founders and chief writers of the Church of the East.

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