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personal and environmental hygiene

Surface contamination with any bacteria did not vary by frequency of cleaning or frequency of illness (p>.05). For more information, please contact: Mark Samis Those completing environmental sampling provided full written informed consent. Data analysis was conducted using SPSS software (PASW Statistics 18.0; IBM SPSS, Armonk, NY). Statistical significance was set to alpha less than or equal to 0.05. If a group of environmental hygienists discover that a potentially deadly strain of bacteria such as MRSA, or methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus — is present in a multiple family housing dwelling, they take the necessary steps to get rid of it. 5.4% (n = 27) of study subjects perceived hand sanitizer as more effective than soap and water. Personal hygiene may be described as the key of maintaining cleanliness and grooming of the external body. Our results suggest that surface contamination, while prevalent, is unrelated to hygiene or health in the college setting. Environmental Hygiene, Environmental Services, Clinical Interventions By Kelly M. Pyrek Numerous studies have demonstrated that contaminated environmental surfaces in healthcare facilities can contribute to the transmission of infectious pathogens and that the cleaning and disinfection of these high-touch surfaces has been suboptimal. Maintain personal and environmental hygiene to limit monsoon woes. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081460.t002. Columbia University School of Nursing, New York, New York, United States of America, Affiliation Surface contamination showed little variation by type of dormitory, reported frequency of cleaning, or reported frequency of illness among the subset of study participants undergoing environmental sampling (n = 60, Table 3). Microbiologic samples of the dormitory environment were collected from 60 study participants (30 men and 30 women). Columbia University School of Nursing, New York, New York, United States of America. Indique les avantages de l’adhésion pour les membres individuels et corporatifs. Students were approached upon entrance and offered information on study aims and procedures. Personal Hygiene Personal hygiene refers to practices that keep our bodies and our immediate environment clean. Also, it aims to protect water and food supplies and to safely manage environmental factors. The purpose of this study was to characterize the personal and environmental hygiene habits of college students, define the determinants of hygiene in this population, and assess the relationship between reported hygiene behaviors, environmental contamination, and health status. Center for Interdisciplinary Research to Reduce Antimicrobial Resistance, Columbia University, New York, New York, United States of America, Affiliations Once identified, the hygienists then implement scientifically sound ways to eradicate the dangers present. While every effort was made to culture surfaces in a timely manner, some subjects were cultured up to two weeks after survey completion, further impairing our comparison of questionnaire data with microbiological findings. Is the Subject Area "Hygiene" applicable to this article? Environmental hygiene includes, in general, activities of disinfection (to control the bacteria and organisms which are harmful to health), fumigation, disinfestation and rodent control. Infrequent cleaning (once per semester or less) was common for many surfaces including bookshelves (n = 358, 71.5%), television remote controls (n = 425, 84.8%), light switches (n = 414, 82.6%), and refrigerator handles (n = 261, 72.7%). Noel Hendrickson/Blend Images/Getty Images. While study subjects were told to continue with baseline cleaning habits prior to environmental culturing, it is possible that participants altered household hygiene prior to our assessment, further impeding our quantification of surface contamination. The study survey included 60 questions of varying styles (Likert-scale, multiple choice, and open-ended answers) and was based on a validated hygiene metric that had been previously piloted by our research team in this setting [6]. July 28, 2020. Those wishing to volunteer for this portion of the study were asked to provide contact information to schedule the study visit to their living space. Most study participants perceived their hygiene habits to be equal or better than other classmates. Colony forming units (CFU) counts were determined using a binocular dissecting microscope. Funding: This research was supported by “Training in Interdisciplinary Research to Reduce Antimicrobial Resistance,” NIH T90 NR010824 at Columbia University and by the The Clorox Company. Analyzed the data: BAM BC KH. Two of these students reported cleaning daily, three weekly, two monthly, and one never. Taken together, there is sufficient evidence to conclude that several organisms persist and transmit in the inanimate environment. Students in the university setting may be ideal targets given their transition from family to independent living, increased risk for infectious diseases [5], and potential for effective behavioral modification. If this finding is confirmed, hygiene interventions targeting the environment may be ill suited for this population, despite the perception of their poor cleaning habits. Yes Subjects noted a median of 5 hand hygiene events per day (range 0 to 30 times), each lasting 16.5 seconds on average (range 0 to 70 seconds). Several aspects of our study design warrant consideration when interpreting these results. Wrote the paper: BAM. Benjamin A. Miko, While cleanliness itself may be a meaningful marker of safe hygiene practices, environmental contamination appears unrelated to reported household hygiene and risk of clinical infection. A Chartered Chemist and … (2013) Personal and Household Hygiene, Environmental Contamination, and Health in Undergraduate Residence Halls in New York City, 2011. here. Common complaints included cough (n = 272, 54.3%), runny nose (n = 357, 71.3%), upset stomach (n = 247, 49.3%), vomiting (n = 83, 16.6%), diarrhea (n = 97, 19.4%), and fever (n = 65, 13%). Personal hygiene refers to the comprehensive cleaning of and taking care of your body. Survey data were analyzed with Pearson's chi-squared test for categorical variables (e.g., Likert scale responses). As such, this population may be well suited for hygiene interventions with sustained impact over adult life. Several survey respondents reported symptoms of an infectious disease over the preceding month. Serial dilutions of each specimen in phosphate buffered saline (e.g., undiluted, 1∶10, 1∶100) were inoculated onto sheep's blood agar plates and incubated at 35°C for 24 hours. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Yes There are no patents, products in development or marketed products to declare. Environmental contamination with coagulase-positive Staphylococcus (e.g., S. aureus) and coliforms was assessed using direct inoculation onto selective agar (mannitol salt and MacConkey, respectively). Our results suggest that surface contamination, while prevalent, is unrelated to reported hygiene or health in the university setting. For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click The >10 CFUs cut point was chosen for this dichotomous analysis because of its clinical relevance as an inoculation dose for particular pathogens (e.g., S. aureus) and its statistical discrimination (>10 CFUs represented the upper quartile of our environmental specimens). More women than men reported consistent hand washing before preparing food (p = .002) and after using the toilet (p = .001). Department of Biology and Medical Laboratory Technology, Bronx Community College, Bronx, New York, United States of America, Affiliation 501 undergraduate students completed a previously validated survey assessing baseline demographics, hygiene habits, determinants of hygiene, and health status. Yes Poor personal hygiene can cause serious problems in a food business, up to and including a food-borne illness outbreak. Some students reported household hygiene that varied with perceived risk of infection: 152 subjects (30.3%) reported cleaning more frequently when their roommate was ill; 127 subjects (25.3%) cleaned more frequently when residents of their floor were sick. here. sampled 70 commonly touched surfaces on a university campus for S. aureus [13]. This study was conducted among undergraduate students at Columbia University in New York City in the Fall 2011 semester. Our ability to detect statistical differences in environmental contamination was more limited (80% power for odds ratios of 4 or greater for a total sample size of 60). Taken together, our sampling technique, use of survey data, and sample size may have weakened our ability to quantify the association between household hygiene, environmental contamination, and health. No, PLOS is a nonprofit 501(c)(3) corporation, #C2354500, based in San Francisco, California, US, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081460. Assessment of personal and environmental hygiene in our study is based on the aspects endorsed by World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF) as a set of practices and conditions for better health maintenance and … Those agreeing to complete a questionnaire offered verbal consent prior to survey initiation. Bacterial contamination of specific surfaces was variable, ranging from no growth to CFUs too numerous to count. A 2004 randomized controlled trial by Larson et al. Probable Staphylococcus aureus was further confirmed using the tube coagulase test. Although the power to detect moderate risk relationships was sufficient for the survey component of the study, the microbiological component was powered only to detect large determinants. Additional culturing for coagulase-positive Staphylococcus and coliforms was performed using selective agar. Whether household hygiene should be a target of these initiatives remains unclear. No, Is the Subject Area "Medical risk factors" applicable to this article? It is likely that any bias present in these self-reports, however, would be over-reporting of hygienic practices. While methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) was isolated from several surfaces (computer keyboards, telephones, and elevator buttons), no methicillin-resistant (MR) strains were found. Most students expressed an understanding that hand hygiene was instrumental in preventing upper respiratory infections (n = 459, 91.6%) and gastrointestinal infections (n = 435, 86.8%). No, Is the Subject Area "Habits" applicable to this article? 65 students (13%) missed class over the previous month due to these complaints; 56 (11.2%) sought medical care. The college dormitory setting has been recognized as a community-based reservoir for infectious diseases [5]. Personal & environmental hygiene We all have our bad days when you may have worked out in the gym and not had an opportunity to take an extremely necessary shower. noted no reduction in symptoms from viral infectious diseases in households that utilized antimicrobial cleaning and hand washing products [23]. For example, many people naturally avoid those who sneeze and cough in their face without covering the mouth. Once the dwelling is clear of MRSA, the hygienists might instruct the residents about how to keep the building clean to thwart against a recurrence of the bacteria. Environmental sampling visits occurred within two weeks of survey completion. Despite this, processing times showed variability (12 to 72 hours, average 36 hours) and we were not able to assess for differences in isolation or quantification of bacteria between these time points. Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. Yes He or she will act as the director of the public works, engineering and environmental hygiene division and will oversee its operations and activities. While several studies have documented the importance of hand washing in the university setting, the added role of environmental hygiene remains poorly understood. A total of 501 students completed the study survey. Two research assistants were present at each residence hall visit and obtained written informed consent for microbiologic sampling, as outlined below. As this is the first study of dormitory residents to evaluate the relationship between environmental colonization, reported hygiene habits, and reported health status, it is not possible to assess for congruence with other studies. Participants included in our previous study were not included in this analysis. Bevin Cohen, Affiliations 10.8% (n = 54) of study subjects stated that their room was “never” cleaned. Hence, the relatively clean environment was particularly surprising. Our microbiological sampling, while validated and reproducible, assessed only bacterial growth on a subset of environmental surfaces. For the survey portion of our study, pre-enrollment sample size analysis demonstrated sufficient power to detect clinically meaningful differences between comparison groups (95% power for odds ratios of 2 or greater for total sample size of 500). Likely that any bias present in these self-reports, however, would be over-reporting hygienic! The manuscript our environmental hygiene showed similar variability although 73.3 % ( n = 367 ) of study subjects that... Cleaning and personal hygiene for the teeth and gums -- -is vital for optimal and. Dormitory spaces may contribute additional risk sanitation is therefore, the hygienists then scientifically. 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